Wednesday, February 12, 2020

High Aspect Ratio Photolithography for MEMS Application Article

High Aspect Ratio Photolithography for MEMS Application - Article Example Review There are several methods that have been used in photolithography and fabrication of molds for use in metal microstructures. LIGA is one of the most common methods that have been previously used for this purpose; this approach has some advantages in that it can be used with tall microstructures that ranged from 100Â µm to 1mm. The effectiveness of this method is that it has no effect on the lateral dimensional accuracy of the long microstructures making it a versatile method, and this explains why it is popular among other photolithographic methods. The limitation of this method is that fabrication of LIGA involves a considerably high cost, and lack of an x-ray synchronized source that would give hard x-rays of high intensity and with low divergent properties. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) s another method that involves polyamide, which is sued to fabricate low cost high aspect ratio structures as compared to LIGA above. With this process, a thickness of 100Â µm is achieved wit h the aspect ratio being 10. The limitation of this process is the tediousness of modifying the RIE machine. In addition to these approaches, there are several other methods that have been used for this purpose and include the high aspect commercial photolithography with photoresists and a UV light source, and the use of a photosensitive polyamide with a UV exposure in fabricating metal molds. The research by Miyajima & Mehregany (1995) involved integrating the above methods in previous studies, and solving the limitations of the studies to achieve low cost high-aspect-ration structures in photolithography. To achieve this, commercially available positive photoresists and UV exposure increasing molds were used together with electroless nickel plating. In the research, a 2-3Â µm line width was maintained and increasing the photoresists thickness, that the above LIGA approach in photolithography lacked. The research used electrostatic actuator micro machined at 1.5Â µ active gaps wi th a polysilicon of up to 5Â µm. The difference in this approach was that instead of increasing the gap height, the gap side was increased. This resulted to reduced use of high aspect ratio structures due to reduced force/torque. This is the main difference comparing this approach and the previous approaches in photolithography. Coating speed was very important in the cause of this research. A lower speed of 1000 rpm portrayed rough surfaces in the photoresists and mask-wafer spacing was small to result to a high resolution pattern. The optimum speed for high resolution was set at 2000rpm and a uniform coating, thickness and a smooth final surface was achieved after the final layer. The prebake temperatures were essential in that an extended prebake time resulted to high-resolution with diluted developer and standard exposure. The prebake temperature ranged between 95 and105 oC, with the optimum temperature being set at 100oC. After each layer, prebake was done at the same temperat ure to enhance drying. This was because, prebake after applying the second layer was observed to result to cracking mainly due to uneven heating in the two layers that resulted to stresses, and eventually cracking. The optimum prebake temperature of 100oC at 30 min was selected as the optimum prebake conditions after each layer. This time was important in that a short prebake time could have resulted to defects caused by the remaining solvent in the photoresis

Friday, January 31, 2020

The Interprofessional Working Environment with Vulnerable Adult with Essay

The Interprofessional Working Environment with Vulnerable Adult with Learning Disabilities - Essay Example As individuals, health practitioners and society are informed, take concern and progressive actions, various professional groups backed by government institutions and private ones are assigned either by choice or by obligation to individuals that need the help and assistance to lead a healthy, normal productive life. This study would try to delineate the current status of interprofessional working condition with regards to government programs and support, public and private agenda and contributions, as well as the actual process, problems and situations involved in being an occupational therapist with a vulnerable adult with learning difference. Occupational therapists (OTs) work with individuals with mental, physical, emotional or developmental disabilities to help them improve their ability to do everyday tasks at home and at work (BLS, 2005) with the goal to make clients have independent, productive, healthy and satisfying lives. The Deaprtment of Health through the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom provide for the necessary support in order to attain a holistic output in all efforts undertaken by both the health and social services sector. As the agency mutate and change over time adopting new policies and programs and discarding those which they deemed outmoded and outdated, professional groups from various agencies are hauled in the scene altogether. Pietroni (1994) described inter-working professional relations developed through hospital teamwork among surgical teams and mental health teams. But the Community Care Act further required social care assessment so that team membership became extended to psychologists, psychiatrists, counsellors, occupational therapists, pharmacists, and most recently, music and art therapists. But also a part of the growing network are from education, housing, court solicitors, voluntary and private sectors (Kingdon, 1992). Stott (1995) observed that by 1990s, the practice-based primary care in the UK have developed into a continuing and comprehensive care that shifted away from the personal doctor. West (1994) added that challenge is already focused to continuing personal care as well as achieving effective teamwork through shared vision, objectives and protocols. The 28 Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs) were introduced in 2002 that led to strategic developments that disbanded former health authorities and also underlined a major NHS issue which is constant change (Leathard, 2003). So that with this preconception, change has been equated to policies and legislations that affect health and social care since. As agencies and professionals with differing background and duties come together to handle individuals with special needs such as vulnerable adults with learning disabilities, a work environment is changed. Many believe that evaluation is still much needed but more also support his integration of different professionals. In a study conducted by Fawcett (2002), it was indicated that among 183 adults who self-reported learning disabilities, over 60 percent admitted that the disabilities persist into adult life. This is prevailing notion as well as a fact that beseech individuals with LD. Here, occupational

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Mac vs IBM :: essays papers

Mac vs IBM Technology has led the world into the 21st century. Competition between two main computer systems, creates controversy over which system is superior. IBM compatables have captured the largest market share, but Apple Macintoshes hold a special place in capabilities. Computer buyers need to keep in mind different capabilities and their own unique requirements when deciding which way to go. Although both provide state of the art computer systems, IBM compatibles and Apple Macintoshes attract their own distinct clients because of their unique operating systems and stand alone buying powers. Adequate performance and mediocre ease of use, bundled in an extremely low cost package, have allowed IBM compatible computers to lead the computer industry in personal computers. To begin with, the average computer generation is about six months, and with every generation IBMs increase their computers^ capacities to appeal more and more to the ^average Joe.^ Memory, normally measured in gigabits, is constantly increasing though most people cannot use as much as is available. One year ago 166 mhz was considered fast. Now 350 mhz is what is being advertised. With the ability to hold more information, graphics have also improved. Megahertz, one type of speed of computers, is increasing at a blinding rate soon surpassing the speed at which a user can operate his computer. In fact, the biggest drawback to IBM compatibles is their complexity. IBMs allow access to useless information that clutters the hard drive while confusing the user. On an IBM, all programs, including Wi! ndows, are DOS based which means one will, at some time, have to use the convoluted system that requires typing rather than point and click. Another problem is that viruses are very common on IBMs especially if connected to the internet. If a computer is contaminated with a virus, even further frustration, time and money may be lost. However, a good element of IBMs is their purchasing abilities. For IBMs there are millions of programs, including games, business tools, and other various varieties. Also, IBM compatibles themselves are relatively inexpensive, and this drives their popularity. A decent, fully equipped machine can be bought for as low as $700. While IBMs appeal to the general public with lower prices, Apple Macintosh has proven to be a better overall product. Unlike IBM marketing claims, which have mislead potential buyers about the superiority of their product by emphasizing their few strengths despite the value; modern Macs can easily outperform commercial IBM computers. Like IBMs the memory on a Mac often exceeds the user requirements. Today^s top of the

Wednesday, January 15, 2020


In Previous existing systems, actually there are several major problems are occurred. In that mainly concentrate on buddy-list search problem. This problem Is take place when huge numbers of messages are occurred continuously. By cause of this search problem, time for passing of messages Is very slow I. E. , time Is delayed to reach particular message to the destination. The reason for occurring this type of problem is ‘overloaded messages'. I. E. , by cause of overloaded messages this buddy-list search problem is occurred. It is sometimes called as ‘scalability problem'.Search cost is also called as ‘communication cost'. When a user arrives, the total number of messages produced by the presence server is nothing but search cost. Search satisfaction is nothing but, time it takes to search the user's arriving buddy list. When the buddy-list search problem is occurred, at that situation there is a chance to delay the message passing. By this cause time is delayed. At the same time, there is need to store that message temporarily up to reach to destination. By this cause, here require extra space to store that message In temporary memory. I. E. , Like cache memory.This Is also one of the problem In already existing systems. The expected number of search messages generated by this AS (presence server) node per unit Is â€Å"(n-l If ‘n' AS nodes present, S = n*(n-l)*(l-n)*u = no*WWW = n*p/4 (I. E. , u= p In) 6. COST EVOLUTIONS The previous existing systems are facing different types of problems. Those are like, buddy-list search problem, which is occurred by cause of overloaded messages. Searching actions are very slow. And then there is a chance to occur the network traffic. And also high constant search latency is appeared. Here, Maintenance cost is also named as search cost.When user arrives, the total number of messages produced by the presence server is nothing but search cost. When user arrives, time it spends to find the user's online buddy list Is nothing but search satisfaction. User is satisfied with mobile presence services when those services are worked properly & at the same time, when the cost for maintenance Is less or cheap. I. E. , when communication cost Is less, then users are attracted to utilize the mobile presence services. Formula for, reducing the communication cost when any data can be where, ‘n' is distance between any 2 AS nodes. Figure 8. 1: Presence Cloud server overlayIn Figure 8. 1, For example, we consider ‘9' AS nodes are present in Presence Cloud for distributing the messages or data. If node'8†² is want to send the data to node'3†². I. E. , 803 (consider node ‘2' is intermediate node). Here, two possibility paths are there. First, node ‘8' is directly go to node ‘3' (Consider the distance between node ‘8' & node ‘3' is 3 SMS I. E. , 803 = sums). Second, AS ‘8' is send data to AS ‘2' first and then AS ‘2' send that d ata to AS ‘3'. (Consider distance between 802 = 2. 5 SMS & 203 = 0. 5 km). Now, calculate the communication cost by using the above formula.In this testing, tester tests an application on outside knowledge of an application. Test engineers are involved in this testing. Gray Box Testing & black box testing. I. E. , it is conducted based on both white box & black box testing. Regression Testing Regression testing is defines as, tester should perform the test on system which is already tested before; When conducted test before, at that time outcomes results to made any changes are necessary, at that situation this regression testing perform once again to that system in order to rectify or modify according to user requirements.Acceptance Testing Acceptance testing is performed based on producing any types of inputs at that time t accepts those inputs & produces the exact and correct outcomes. I. E. , it can accept developer's inputs in order to produce best correct results. Stress Testing Stress testing is conducted based on producing the wrong inputs to the system at that time, the system is I. E. , here, developer is given fault inputs to his proposed system at that situation also output is produced exact & successive outcomes. In this project, we are performing the two testing. Those are ‘acceptance testing & stress testing.These testing are used to test this presence cloud project in order to provide best outcomes. . E. , provide best presence services through mobiles. 10. 2 -rest cases Test cases are constructed based on the inputs giving in order to get correct outputs. These practical outputs are comparing with the expected values or results. At that time, those two outputs are either matched or reach at least nearing to expected outputs. Test cases are dividing into two categories. Those are, Positive test cases Negative test cases These test cases are explained by using tables. In that each column specifies one some approaches.In first column we mention the test case description. In column 2, mention actual value which is produced by the system.For avoiding various existing problems in previous existing systems, here, we introduced or reposed the ‘Presence cloud' system. In order to avoid the almost all problems in existing systems. For providing best mobile presence services, here, using some effective modules. These modules are given full of support to avoid existing problems in order to provide best presence services. In future work, we have a chance to extend our proposed system more effectively. For achieving this, we are performed several operations. In proposed system (I. E. , presence cloud) should not address the presence server authentication problem.At that situation, there is a chance to hack he user's accounts by unauthorized peoples. I. E. , hackers or attackers, or malicious attackers. So, here, there is no privacy for the user accounts. And also another problem is occurred in presence cloud overlay module which is presented in presence cloud. That is, in that overlay, the direction between the each node to another node is unilateral. In future work, we are providing the security for authentication for the users. In order to protect the user accounts from the attackers or hackers. In future work, we provide bi-directions between each node for exchanging data between users.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

My Fellow Christians Of Berea - 1712 Words

My fellow Christians of Berea, I am here to put your fears at rest about what the Thessalonian Jews have been telling you: for they do not know what they speak of. Jesus is the only son of our Lord; He is the promised Messiah whom God has sent down to save us. Jesus Christ is the truth and the light, we are the descendants and I have the knowledge and truth of the way to the Lord. We can all be disciples of Jesus, living through His teachings and following His way. The Thessalonian Jews know not what they do; yet they are eager to dispute my way of addressing Jesus’ teachings. In order to inherit God’s heavenly promises we must first lead a life that God would be happy about. Serving others in a positive way in order to create peace†¦show more content†¦For forty days Jesus walked this Earth after being crucified and buried, locked in a tomb with an enormous boulder. I have been tied to Jesus being the promised Messiah through my label as an apostle. Ther e is a large amount of evidence that proves Jesus is the Messiah and Lord of the universe. The evidence is shown through the following facts: It was before your eyes that Jesus Christ was publicly exhibited as crucified! Does God supply you with the Spirit and work miracles among you by your doing the works of the law, or by your believing what you heard? (Probatio, 3:1 – 4:31). Jesus has said that he will grant relief if you are a believer in Him. Those who do not obey or believe will suffer punishment for eternity and will be sent away from his glorious throne. Those who believe in the testament will have eternal life in the kingdom of Heaven. Second, Christ died for our sins, was buried, rose again on the third day and appeared to Peter and then to the other twelve. Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most are still alive today, though others have died. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me (1 Corinthians 15:3-8). As previously stated, Jesus is the Messiah, so my fellow Berea Christians, Jews and Galatians, do not be afraid of the Thessalonians. Those who unsettle you

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Essay about Child Abuse in America - 2804 Words

According to Tennyson Center for Children, â€Å"A report of child abuse is made every ten seconds in the U.S.† (â€Å"Child Abuse in America†). One cannot fathom the idea of why anyone would intentionally hurt the innocent children of today’s society. Child abuse happens with children of all ages, gender, and religions. Likewise, the world can be identified as a harsh place, where child abuse occurs around the world, and is even evident in the United States. There are many factors that contribute to this repulsive behavior. Physical, sexual, and psychological cruelty are effects of child abuse. Physical abuse is a painful, devastating event that occurs on a daily basis. According to the government of Newfoundland and Labrador,†¦show more content†¦Based on the American Humane Association some indicators of physical abuse are, â€Å"swelling and cuts on the child’s face, head, back, genital area, butt, or thighs, and wounds like bite marks, burns , broken bones, puncture marks, or missing hair† (â€Å"Child Physical Abuse†). There have been records of parents bringing their kids to the emergency room saying they fell causing breaks and fractures or burned themselves when the burns are too severe to be an accident. Medline Plus encyclopedia advises action must be taken if there is belief â€Å"a child is being abused; report it immediately, by calling Child Protective Services or the local police† (Child Abuse-Physical). By getting the local authorities involved countless of children’s lives can be saved and be given a chance to live a better, healthier life. In reality, leading a life where a child feels loved, safe, and happy can be tough if they were or are abused. The effects of physical abuse are intolerable and painful to see. The children of child abuse face danger and fear every waking minute of the day. An example of this is told in Dana’s story, â€Å"I was 15 years old. He would c hoke, punch, kick, slap, burn, slash, and staple me within my five years of abuse. He would strangle me to the point of near death. In the end I didnt struggle I just prayed I wouldnt wake back up to another day or minute of abuse. He would have bad days and started with sarcastic comments, name calling and belittling me,Show MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Sexual Child Abuse On America1517 Words   |  7 Pages The Impact of Sexual Child Abuse in America Child abuse has been going on for many years. There are many forms of child abuse, however, there is one that is far worse than the rest; sexual abuse. 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